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    Changes in multiple ecosystem services between 2000 and 2013 and their driving factors in the Grazing Withdrawal Program, China2018

    CAO W., FAN J., GONG G., HARRIS W., ZHANG H., ZHANG Y., ZHONG H.Journaux et Revues (scientifiques)

    biens et services écosystémiques, coûts/ mesures de restauration, valeur d'usage

    Ecological Engineering
    Volume 116, June 2018, Pages 67–79

    Highlights
    • We evaluated changes of multiple ecosystem services in the Grazing Withdrawal Program, China from 2000 to 2013 in a spatially explicit manner.
    • We investigated the underlying drivers of multiple ecosystem services and their synergies and trade-offs.
    • The wetter and warmer climate trend and ecological restoration programs jointly resulted in promoting the vegetation recovery and enhancing ecosystem services as a whole.


    Abstract
    Quantitative assessment of ecosystem services in the Grazing Withdrawal Program (GWP) of China is required to understand the effectiveness of environmental protection programs and the sustainability of grassland ecosystems. This study focused on quantitative assessment of changes of key ecosystem services and their driving factors in the GWP from 2000 to 2013. Based on widely used biophysical models, including the GLOPEM-CEVSA model, the precipitation storage method, Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-Offs (InVEST), Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) and Underground Productivity Model (UPM), this study integrated multi-source data to analyze dynamic changes of regulating services, including carbon sequestration, water regulation, sand fixation and soil retention, and the provisioning service of grassland yield. For the GWP area during 2000–2013, the ecosystem pattern remained relatively stable and multiple ecosystem services showed overall improvement but there were local deteriorations. For the 14 years net primary productivity (NPP) and grassland yield (GY) increased substantially. Water regulation in forest, grassland and wetland/water body ecosystems improved slightly. The soil conservation function of the entire ecosystem was slightly enhanced with soil retention showing an increasing spatial homogenization and wind erosion having a decreasing tendency. Ecological restoration and reconstruction efforts and climate change helped to improve ecosystem services. Increases in both temperature and precipitation and ecological rehabilitation had a positive effect on vegetation restoration related to a marked increase of vegetation coverage. Increase in annual precipitation increased rainfall related erosion but also assisted water regulation. Reduction in wind speed effectively lowered the occurrence of wind erosion. Vegetation restoration directly increased NPP and GY, and was conducive to water regulation and soil conservation. However, grassland degradation still continued in local areas. Ecological programs applied to the grasslands of China should be continued. Adopting adaptive management approaches that facilitate the synergy of multiple ecosystem services are required to maximize their benefit to the people of China.

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.02.028

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